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D – G Terms

Diagnostic mammogram: The use of a breast x-ray to evaluate the breasts of a woman who has symptoms of disease such as a lump, or whose screening mammogram shows an abnormality.
Digital mammography: A technique for recording x-ray images in computer code, which allows the information to enhance subtle, but potentially significant, changes.
Ducts: Channels that carry body fluids. Breast ducts transport milk from the breast’s lobules out to the nipple.
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS): Cancer that is confined to the ducts of the breast tissue.
Excisional biopsy: The surgical removal (excision) of an abnormal area of tissue, usually along with a margin of healthy tissue, for microscopic examination. Excisional biopsies remove the entire lump from the breast.
False negative (mammograms): Breast x-rays that miss cancer when it is present.
False positive (mammograms): Breast x-rays that indicate breast cancer is present when the disease is truly absent.
Fat necrosis: Lumps of fatty material that form in response to a bruise or blow to the breast.
Fibroadenoma: Benign breast tumor made up of both structural (fibro) and glandular (adenoma) tissues.
Fibrocystic disease: See Generalized breast lumpiness.
Fine needle aspiration: The use of a slender needle to remove fluid from a cyst or clusters of cells from a solid lump.
Frozen section: A sliver of frozen biopsy tissue. A frozen section provides a quick preliminary diagnosis but is not 100 percent reliable.
Generalized breast lumpiness: Breast irregularities and lumpiness, commonplace and noncancerous. Sometimes called “fibrocystic disease” or “benign breast disease.”
Gene: Segment of a DNA molecule and the fundamental biological unit of heredity.
Genetic change: An alteration in a segment of DNA, which can disturb a gene’s behavior and sometimes leads to disease.